Essay Questions (15 points each/4 will be graded for 60 points total):
a. With the advent of maritime exploration the influence of the West (at this point, meaning Western Europe) changed greatly. Describe how the influence of the West changed with regards to economic, political, and cultural influence. Further, discuss the original motivations for Western maritime exploration and the consequences of this new venture. Be sure to use specific examples.
b. Early modern Europe experienced tremendous upheaval during the 15th through 18th centuries due to the Renaissance and Reformation. Discuss how these two movements were intertwined. In other words, how did the Renaissance influence the Reformation and vice versa, how did the Reformation influence the Renaissance. Be sure to use specific examples.
c. Discuss the specific doctrinal and political issues that led to the Protestant Reformation. How did the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation?
d. Compare and contrast the political situations in early modern England and France with regards to the structure of the government and the power of the monarchy.
e. The creation of the Atlantic World resulted in a period of exchange unparalleled in human history. This period of exchange is commonly referred to as the Columbian Exchange and involved the widespread exchange of food, animals, plants, human populations, diseases, ideas, and religion, just to name a few, between the different continents and ethnic groups of the Atlantic World. Discuss at least three different large categories of exchanges (food, animals, plants, human populations, diseases, ideas, and religion) and the consequences of these exchanges. Be sure to discuss three different aforementioned categories, but be sure to list specific examples for each category.
f. Discuss European, American, and African participation in the Atlantic slave trade. What was the impetus behind the slave trade and the consequences for each of the three participant groups (European, American, and African)? Finally, what effect did the slave trade have on the economy and social structure of each participant group?
g. Describe the interactions between the rulers of the Ottoman Empire and non-Muslims within the empire. Also describe the interactions between the rulers of the Mughal Empire and non-Muslims within the Empire. Finally, compare and contrast the two empires with regards to how they tolerated non-Muslims within their respective empires.
h. Why was the Ottoman Empire more powerful, in the early modern period, than any other European or Islamic power? Be sure to discuss specific political, economic, military, cultural and social reasons behind their power.